Genetic Testing in Assisted Reproduction
In the practice of obstetrics and gynecology, genetic testing plays a greater role. For medical professionals to provide patients with the highest quality of care, they ought to familiarize themselves with a new available range of genetic tests and their limitations. Moreover, physicians should be able to ascertain patients within their practices who are in need of genetic testing. Such patients are likely to encompass women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy and are at a risk of giving birth to affected infants. Moreover, such patients include gynecology patients who, for instance, may be prone to certain types of cancer. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ethical issues involved in genetic testing in assisted reproduction, the role of organizational leadership, financial implication for an organization, connection to the NYS Patient’s Bill of Rights, and liaison to professional ethics.
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Ethics Issues Involved in Genetic Testing
Social justice is one of the pillars of professionalism, which would require doctors to uphold fairness in a health care system, including the equal distribution of health care resources. In the light of genetic testing, justice would oblige physicians to press for resources corresponding to a person’s ability to pay, when they face obstacles to health care for their patients who need care as a result of genetic testing and diagnosis (Harpe et al. 2013).
Providing Education to Women
Obstetricians or experts in genetics, referred as counsels, are also in a position to offer education to women. They should disseminate accurate information and, if necessary, emotional support for patients finding it difficult to accept the results or consequences of genetic diagnoses, be they associated with antenatal care, cancer risks, or other effects on health. Moreover, health providers can educate their patients on measures which they can take to mitigate health risks related to their genetic circumstance, including undergoing colonoscopy if there is a proneness to colon cancer (Harpe et al. 2013).
Ethics in Gamete Donation
Recently, issues encompassing the utilization of gametes have become progressively visible. Women donating oocytes ought to undergo vitro fertilization (IVF). Due to the potential health risks related to IVF, such as ovarian hyperactive stimulation syndrome and surgical hazards, a core concern related to permitting women to be oocyte donors entails acquiring informed consent. Additionally, physicians should provide counseling in terms of the emotional advantages and risks of oocyte donation (Harpe et al. 2013).
Furthermore, it is ethical that oocyte donors participate out of free will and without intimidation or undue influence. Thus, any financial help for oocyte donors may result in exploitation as women may engage in oocyte donation against their best interests along with the possible health risks involved.
Another ethical issue encompassing the utilization of donated gametes is to what extent the identity of the donor should be preserved. There is an emotional connection regarding gamete and embryo donation. Certainly, it is universally important for human beings to be aware of their genetic roots, in particular of self-identity. However, medical professionals should reveal the information regarding gamete donor considering the wishes of the donor and the parties receiving the donated gametes (Harpe et al. 2013).
Institutional setup plays an essential role in the healthcare system. In fact, the management organizes medical and other resources to ensure organizational efficiency. The responsibilities are extensive and require specialized knowledge within the departments. For example, chief executive officers provide an efficient monitoring and ordering system. The board of directors source for resources and partnership to ensure strategic growth and execution of the organization’s vision. To illustrate, they seize various partnership opportunities, lobby with the government, and solicit private donors (Goshtai & Abbasi, 2016).
The administrative leadership aims to secure compliance with the various laws and regulations governing Genetic Testing in Assisted Reproduction. Such regulation may involve health insurance, patients billing, confidentiality, and fraud. Adhering to such rules is a significant administrative responsibility since a health organization providing assisted reproduction is susceptible to lawsuits and addressing the legal claims as well as labor and employment laws (Hens et al. 2013).
The introduction of the new service to the health organization will have significant financial impact. The facility needs to considerably invest in the purchase and installation of equipment. Furthermore, it faces with a necessity to invest in a skilled human resource to manage the equipment and facilitate workflow. As a result, the health facility may opt to recruit experienced employees to handle the work process or train and develop internal staff. However, if the organization chooses to initially hire experienced workers, then it may incur higher costs than training existing staff. Additionally, the service may promise high returns in the future if well-implemented (Goshtai & Abbasi, 2016). For the organization to realize the financial gains, it needs a comprehensive marketing and promotional strategy through public outreach programs. For instance, it can outline the benefits of the program to the public (Hens et al. 2013).
NYS Patients Bill aims at reducing barriers to appropriate use of genetic testing. Such obstacles include a misuse of genetic information in employment, insurance, and inadequate knowledge of the health care providers (Harpe et al. 2013). Furthermore, the bill outlines insufficient oversight of clinical genetic testing in laboratories. For example, one facility may screen patients only to treat the ones who are likely to have a positive outcome. Other organizations may accept patients who are willing to proceed despite low chances of success. As a result, some organizations may not accept prospective patients due to a concern for mental or parental fitness (Hens et al. 2013).
For the organization to be in line with the NYS Patients Bill, physicians assessing the eligibility of patient should not be under a legal obligation to accept all individuals who request the service. Nonetheless, the facility must have policies that acknowledge the conscience objection of physicians (Goshtai & Abbasi, 2016). As a result, it should educate the staff on the standards and procedures of screening patients and their partners. Such information should also be available to the public so that people can assess their qualification (Harpe et al. 2013).
Practice of a health care professional bases on the relationship of trust between the patient and practitioner. The latter has a responsibility to advocate for increased quality and access to genetic testing. The reason is that their knowledge and social status empowers them to influence policies regarding quality healthcare. For example, practitioners must monitor and publicize data to sensitize the public to related health issues and patients’ rights. They should also inform the community about problems with infertility, parenthood, and genital testing to promote a debate to influence health practices and legislation (Goshtai & Abbasi, 2016).
For physicians to provide high-quality medical care for their patients, they ought to familiarize themselves with the currently available genetic tests and their limitations. Furthermore, they should discharge their duties in an ethical manner by addressing the ethical issues related to genetic testing in assisted reproduction. Financial impact that results from genetic testing incorporates the purchase and installation of equipment as well as hiring a new workforce with skills necessary to use such equipment. Practitioners should embrace professional ethics, especially when they advocate for increased quality and access to genetic testing for their patients.
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