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Flu Shot in High Risk Population. A Case Scenario
Flu is a common term for influenza disease caused by the influenza virus whose symptoms get considered as mild. They include high fever, a running nose, sore throat, muscle pains, and a feeling of fatigue. Influenza is an infection that is highly contagious with a spreading rate that gets considered as high. It is also an infection that affects people variably according to the aspects of age. The disease is more common for children than the adults. Moreover, its symptoms observed in children are milder. Nausea and vomiting get experienced as some of the symptoms widespread among children (Dyer, 2003). Successful attempts have been made to prevent and control the illness because of its mild symptoms and contagious nature. Vaccination and offering health tips on how to prevent contracting influenza present examples of some of the attempts that have been made to prevent and control the flu. This essay aims at presenting a case study on flu shot with an aim of preventing and controlling the illness in a high risk population.
Prevention of flu in the US community has been categorized into primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention activities. Each of the categories of prevention is crucial for the overall prevention policies of influenza (Stephenson, 2002). Primary prevention measures of influenza in the US get defined by the clinical preventive services commonly known as the US Preventive Services Task Forces (USPSTF). Primary prevention activities are specifically defined to target an individual. Therefore, the primary prevention measures in the US mainly come in personalized or small scale. For instance, passive and active immunization against the disease and offering protective education and counseling are the basic concepts in primary prevention measures of influenza. They are highly beneficial to the community in flu shot administration activities because they help to avoid suffering, cost, and burdens associated with influenza.
Secondary prevention measures of influenza are activities that mainly identify and treat the asymptomatic individuals who already have been infected with the disease. These prevention measures aim at issuing prevention to people whose condition is not apparently clinical. The measure helps in preventing the contagious nature of influenza through ensuring that it does not show significant risk for its negative outcomes. Secondary measures are apparently treatment measures, although the target for them is not to treat infected people, but to uphold the health of the community at large by preventing the spread (Dyer, 2003). Flu shot administration at this stage has two primary objectives, including the treatment of the affected people and preventing the spread of the virus. Therefore, secondary prevention measures are aimed at maximizing the well-being of a person and ensuring that suffering is minimized in the asymptomatic individuals.
Tertiary prevention measures are activities that revolve around the care of an established disease. In case of influenza, the tertiary prevention measures are made with an aim to restore highest function, minimize the negative effects of disease, and prevent influenza related complications (Stephenson, 2002). Commonly, tertiary prevention measures are reflected in the hospitalizing of the influenza infected persons. However, they are not mostly needed because the secondary prevention measures minimize the impact of the disease.
The flu has severely affected the community. Influenzas contagious nature has led to most of the effects on the community. The virus has mainly affected the society through the disruption of its productive activities (Stephenson, 2002). Influenza influences human output ability whereby humans lower their productivity. In return, most of the activities in the society are disrupted because they mainly depend on human effort. The contagious nature of flu facilitates the disruption of activities because the society at large must be cautious of the infection. The separation of some members of the society from others leads to the disruption of the society norms hence disruption of the communitys important activities. Primary prevention measures should frequently be practiced to ensure that the flu does not reach the extent of disrupting the communitys important activities.
Influenza also affects the community whereby food and water supplies become limited. The infection is spread through various means. Its most common channel is the food substances and water (Stephenson, 2002). Therefore, the delivery of water and food in times of influenza outbreak is limited due to the control of the disease. In addition, food and water are limited because of the reduced productivity in times of the outbreak.
The nursing health system and the government have been on the forefront to initiate and apply the prevention and control measures of the disease. Both parties have based their prevention strategies under the primary prevention measures. If influenza affects people in a large way, the specific government of a country may then apply the secondary prevention measures (Dyer, 2003). The nursing health system has been led by the World Health Organization (WHO). WHO has initiated significant measures to ensure that influenza is prevented. Moreover, it has developed a set of rules that every country must follow in order to ensure that the flu is prevented in the society. Most of the policies WHO has developed are mandatory. For instance, WHO has formulated a hygiene policy that ought to be implemented across the globe. In general the WHO has been the main prevention and control body of influenza internationally.
On the other hand, the government has also developed and initiated the prevention and control measures of influenza for its citizens. The United States government has ensured that the country runs under a health bill to prevent the spread of contagious diseases such as influenza. The government has come up with an immunization strategy whereby all the citizens must be vaccinated to prevent any occurrence of the illness. However, the occurrence of influenza in the United States has forced the governments top initiate a quarantine policy which is a control measure for influenza (Stephenson, 2002). Both the immunization and quarantine are primary prevention efforts by the government. The government also engages in secondary prevention measures once a probable outbreak is predicted. Furthermore, the government has initiated an instant vaccination process for kids to ensure that the flu does not emerge in an intensified way.
The prevention and control process of influenza has affected various factors such as environmental, epidemiological, and biological ones. The prevention activities have influenced the environmental factors through the use of chemicals to disinfect the influenza virus related area (Pandemic flu prevention challenging, 2007). The environment of the area said to be infected is affected in terms of air and soil pollution. The use of chemicals to kill the influenza virus should not be widely used because they have side effects on the environment.
Epidemiological factors are factors that define the distribution and the determinants of health related states and events in populations. The epidemiological factors also involve the study to control the health problems in the community (Pandemic flu prevention challenging, 2007). Influenza as well has had epidemiological factors in its prevention and control measures. The disease has caused a change in population patterns whereby people have evacuated from the regions with most cases of influenza and have settled in other favorable regions. This migration has created an epidemiological effect on the community.
Biologically, influenza has also affected the society through the human body. The human bodys functions are biological and when the body functions in an unusual way, it is said to be affected biologically. Therefore, influenza symptoms cause a biological change of the body, hence affecting the biological factors.
In conclusion, prevention and control of influenza can be said to mainly revolve around the primary prevention measures such as the vaccination. The prevention of influenza is crucial for the communitys well-being. For this reason, governments and the nursing health system have enabled the prevention and control measures through the health and hygiene maintenance policies.
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